GROOVING: Describes cutting a tread design into tread rubber where a design does not already exist.
GROUND CONTACT AREA: Describes the contact patch of a tire
IMPACT DAMAGE: Describes a rupture to a tire caused by the shock of striking a rock, curb, etc. and not caused by cutting.
INNER LINER: Describes the innermost layer on a tubeless tire.
INNER TUBE: Describes a doughnut-shaped latex air chamber inserted into a non-tubeless tire to hold pressurised air.
LATERAL GRIP: Describes a tire's ability to maintain its course under difficult road surfaces.
LOAD AND INFLATION TABLE: Describes a tire manufacturer's data chart listing the carrying capacity of a tire at each of several air pressure increments from the lowest to the maximum capacity.
OZONE CHECKING: Describes the hard spots found on the sidewalls of tires caused by the action of the ozone in the air on the rubber. While this condition is normal, it has long term effects and can be dangerous on tires that have travelled more than 40,000 miles without being changed,
OZONE COMPOUND: Describes rubber compounded with certain chemicals used in tyre production to retard ozone damage.
PLUG PATCH: Describes a type of tire repair material used to repair a punctured tire, usually as a stopgap situation.
PLY: Describes the layer of rubber-coated parallel cords which form a tire carcass.
PLY RATING (PR): Provides an indication of a particular tyre's strength and load carrying capacity, now mostly replaced by the term "load range."
PLY SEPARATION: Describes a breakdown of the bonding compounds in a tyre resulting in the plies detaching from each other, usually due to the tyre being exposed to excessive heat over a long term.
RADIAL PLY: Describes the ply used in the construction of car tires where the cords run at right angles to the bead and parallel to the tire radius.
RADIAL RUNOUT: Describes a variation in the diameter of a brake disc, wheel, or tire from the specified level.
RADIAL TIRE: Describes a popular tire characterised by having the main carcass plies run at right angles to the bead and parallel to the radius, yet acting independently of each other.
RECAP: Describes the procedure of adding a top strip of synthetic rubber to the buffed and roughened surface of a worn tire.
REINFORCEMENT: Describes a material that can be rubber and fabric, which can be vulcanised to a tire to reinforce strength to the cord body after damage.
RIBBING: Describes the series of raised portions in tyre castings or mouldings designed to increase rigidity.
RIM BEAD SEAT: Describes the portion of the wheel rim that sits below the rim flange providing radial support to the bead of the tire
RUN-FLAT TIRE: Describes a type of tire that can run for a certain length of time whilst uninflated; run-flat tires are designed to operate effectively with or without air, although providing acceptable handling qualities deflated and first-class handling when inflated.
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