AXLE: Describes a shaft on which the wheels revolve with several different types available, each with its own function.
• A full-floating axle that drives the rear wheels, although it neither holds nor supports them.
• A semi-floating or one-quarter floating axle that drives all four wheels and holds and supports them.
• A three-quarter floating axle used to drive the rear wheels and hold them but not support them.
• A live axle that both holds and transmits power to the wheels.
• A dead axle that holds the wheels while not transmitting power to them.
AXLE-BOX: Describes a box-shaped housing design to hold the axle bearings and lubricant and support the weight of the vehicle through springs.
AXLE CASING: Describes the tubular housing that encloses the differential and half-shafts along with their bearings.
AXLE DESIGNATION: Describes a numeric expression that describes the total number of wheels followed by the number of driven wheels. For example, '4x2' is a vehicle with four wheels on two axles, but only two wheels (on the one axle) drive the vehicle. In contrast, a '4x4' has four wheels on two axles, and both sets of axles drive the vehicle.
AXLE FLANGE: Describes a type of disc used to attach a road wheel at the end of an axle shaft.
AXLE KINGPIN: Describes a type of pin that a steering axle's wheels pivot rotates around.
AXLE SHAFT: Describes a shaft that connects the differential and the driveshaft on each side in an independent suspension configuration.
AXLE STAND: Describes an adjustable height tripod used to support a vehicle when working underneath it. Although the stand cannot raise a vehicle's height, its use as a backup when the vehicle has been jacked up is invaluable for ease of work and safety.
AXLE TUBE: Describes the part of an axle housing that covers the half-shaft.
AXLE WEIGHT: Describes the proportion of the vehicle's weight that can safely rest on the axle's wheels.
CAMBERED AXLE: Describes a car axle that has a slight arch curving upward at the centre so that the wheels can tilt outward at the top.
DEAD AXLE: Describes an axle that neither rotates nor is driven but merely forms a base upon which to attach the wheels. It contrasts with a live axle.
DOUBLE REDUCTION AXLE: Describes a drive axle construction in which two sets of reduction gears are used for extreme reduction of gear ratio
DRIVE LAYOUT: Describes the arrangement of the order of a driven axle, either front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive, mid-engine drive, four-wheel drive or two-wheel drive.
DRIVING AXLE: Describes the axle driven by the engine through the drivetrain used to hold, align and drive the rear wheels on rear-wheel-drive cars, or provide torque force to front wheels.
FREE RADIUS: Describes the measurement from the wheel axle centreline to the top of the tire when inflated.
FREEWHEEL HUB: Describes a type of hub fitted to the front axle of some four-wheel-drive vehicles, in which the drive to the front wheels can be disconnected when the front axle is not being driven.
FRONT AXLE: Describes the axle to which the front wheels are attached
FRONT-AXLE AND REAR-AXLE SPLIT: Describes a dual-circuit braking system in which each circuit brakes both the front axle and the rear axle.
LEVEL PLUG: Describes a threaded plug fitted on the side of a rear axle to determine if sufficient oil has been used during filling.
LIVE AXLE: Describes a driven axle upon which the wheels are firmly attached, used on rear-wheel-drive vehicles.
LOW PIVOT SWING AXLE: Describes a type of rear axle setup where the differential housing is attached to the frame vehicle by a pivot mount. The reverse side of the differential is connected to the other driving wheel by a housing and axle set up that pivots in line with the differential to frame pivot point.
PINION CARRIER: Describes a part of the rear axle assembly that supports and contains the pinion gear shaft.
PINION SHAFT: Describes the short drive shaft found in the rear axle that connects the prop shaft to the crown wheel through the final drive pinion.
REAR AXLE CROSSMEMBER: Describes a tubular frame member situated at the rear of a body shell incorporating the mounting points for the rear axle.
REAR AXLE HOUSING, BANJO TYPE: Describes a form of rear axle housing where the differential unit may be removed while the housing remains in place on the vehicle.
REAR AXLE HOUSING, SPLIT TYPE: Describes a form of rear axle housing comprising several individual elements bolted together. In order to remove the differential, the housing must be split apart.
RIGID AXLE: Describes a simple autonomous form of suspension system, consisting of a rigid transverse member with wheel hubs solidly bolted to it. The axle can be attached to the vehicle body by leaf springs.
SEMI-FLOATING AXLE: Describes the axle design currently most in use today that earned its title through the inner end of the axle shaft, appearing to "float" in differential gear.