INDEPENDENT FRONT SUSPENSION (IFS): Describes a type of suspension system where the two front wheels are sprung independently from each other, allowing the engine to be positioned further forward and lower between the wheels.
INDEPENDENT REAR SUSPENSION (IRS): Describes a type of suspension system where the two rear wheels are sprung independently from each other, allowing a larger trunk with a lower floor to be placed between the wheels.
INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION: Describes a type of suspension system that allows each wheel to move up and down without undue influence on the other wheels, meaning that if one of the wheels hits a bump, the other three wheels are not affected.
KINGPIN: Describes a hardened steel pin passed through the steering knuckle and axle end. In more recent car designs, the kingpin has been superseded by the ball joint.
LEADING ARM: Describes a suspension system pioneered by Citroen with two long arms extending forward from the pivot points of the arms wheels are attached,
LEADING LINK: Describes a suspension link mounted to the chassis behind the wheel aligned to resist longitudinal motions in a wheel.
KINGPIN AXIS: Describes the centreline of ball joints in a front suspension system.
KNUCKLE: Describes a hinge joint with a pin inserted in it.
LATERAL ARM: Describes a form of suspension member that connects an upright to the vehicle chassis.
LATERAL LINK: Describes a suspension link aligned to resist strong sideways motions in a wheel.
LINK: Describes a suspension member with a single diagnostic link diaphragm link at each end.
LONG AND SHORT ARM SUSPENSION: Describes a suspension system fitted with an upper and lower control arm. The upper arm is shorter than the lower to allow the wheel to deflect in a vertical direction with a minimal camber change.
MACPHERSON STRUT: Describes a suspension piece that includes a coil spring and shock absorber attached to the lower A-arms and the top of the front body structure, developed by Earle S. MacPherson, an engineer at Ford of England.
MACPHERSON STRUT TOWER: Describes a piece of sheet metal panel designed to surround the upper mount of a MacPherson strut at the side panels of the engine compartment.
MACPHERSON SUSPENSION: Describes a suspension layout that specifically incorporates MacPherson struts.
MULTILINK SUSPENSION: Describes a rear suspension consisting of at least four links, without struts, that provide greater flexibility for both ride and handling.
REAR SUSPENSION: Describes the combination of axles, springs, and linkages that control the rear wheels' movement.
UPPER BALL JOINT: Describes a mechanical pivot located at the end of the upper suspension links.
PARALLEL TRAILING LINK SUSPENSION: Describes a front suspension layout mostly found on rear-engined cars.
RADIUS ARM: Describes the additional suspension link in a beam axle layout that provides the fore-and-aft location of the axle.
RADIUS RODS: Describes the rods that are part of the suspension, usually a live rear axle, that permit an up and down motion.
RISING RATE: Describes a suspension system that becomes more difficult to compress the more it is compressed.
RISING-RATE SUSPENSION: Describes a suspension system where the spring rate increases when the wheels move further into jounce, an action accomplished by configuring the geometric shape of the suspension and fitting springs whose rate of tension increases as they are compressed, maintaining a consistent ride while maintaining consistent handling under a variety of situations.
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